Chromosomal instability and aging

basic science and clinical implications

Publisher: Marcel Dekker in New York

Written in English
Cover of: Chromosomal instability and aging |
Published: Pages: 579 Downloads: 471
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Subjects:

  • Aging -- Molecular aspects.,
  • Chromosomes.,
  • Cells -- Aging.,
  • Aging -- Genetic aspects.,
  • Aging, Premature -- genetics.,
  • Genetic Diseases, Inborn -- genetics.

Edition Notes

The induction of chromosomal instability is known to promote genetic rearrangements, tumorigenesis and the molecular genetic chaos associated with poor outcome cancers. The early drivers to chromosomal instability are poorly understood. Our recent studies showed that modest overexpression of cyclin D1 is sufficient for the. Dicentric chromosomes are a relevant marker of chromosomal instability. Their appearance is associated with telomere dysfunction, leading to cancer progression and a poor clinical outcome. Here, we present Telomere and Centromere staining followed by M-FISH (TC+M-FISH) for improved detection of telomere dysfunction and the identification of dicentric chromosomes in cancer patients and . Sex after 60 can be better than ever before, but aging does bring some changes. Learn how to work with and around them to keep your sex life aglow.   In most cases, the genome instability is associated with immunodeficiency, a predisposition to develop cancer, and premature aging. This topic review will discuss Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS; MIM #), which is a chromosomal breakage syndrome associated with immunodeficiency [ 2,3 ].

Numerous studies have proved that telomere dysfunction in the absence of telomerase activity drives chromosomal instability/karyotype evolution through telomere-telomere type rearrangements (breakage-fusion-bridge cycles) promoting the appearance of chromosomal rearrangements and numerical chromosome aberrations, contributing to genomic. Chromosomal Instability as a Driver of Tumor Heterogeneity and Evolution Samuel F. Bakhoum and Dan Avi Landau The Role of Aneuploidy in Cancer Evolution Laurent Sansregret and Charles Swanton Treatment-Induced Mutagenesis and Selective Pressures Sculpt Cancer Evolution Subramanian Venkatesan, Charles Swanton, Barry S. Taylor, and Joseph F. Costello. Ongoing genomic instability represents a hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, which manifests largely as whole chromosome- or translocation-based aneuploidy. Importantly, although it supports. Background: Chromosomal instability (CIN) is thought to be associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors; however, evidence from preclinical and mouse tumor models suggest that CIN may paradoxically enhance or impair cancer cell fitness. Breast cancer prognostic expression signature sets, which reflect tumor CIN status, efficiently delineate outcome in estrogen receptor ER-positive breast.

  Chromosomal breakage syndromes are a group of genetic disorders that are typically transmitted in an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. In culture, cells from affected individuals exhibit elevated rates of chromosomal breakage or instability, leading to chromosomal . Research at universities and in the private sector has made significant in-roads into the causes of aging at the cellular and molecular level. Changes at this level occur in our cells as we get.   The telomerase theory of aging is well supported by many scientific studies. This book provides compelling evidence in an easy to digest manner. I have to say, we are not far from extending human life by hundreds if not thousands of years in the near future. Where many other aging theories fail the telomerase theory of aging doesn's: Current knowledge indicates that the aging process starts with subclinical changes at the molecular level. These include the accumulation of mutations, telomere attrition, and epigenetic alterations leading to genomic instability. Such defects multiply exponentially over time, resembling a “snowball effect,” and eventually leading to morphological and functional deterioration of the brain.

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DOI link for Chromosomal Instability and Aging. Chromosomal Instability and Aging book. Basic Science and Clinical Implications. By Fuki Hisama, Sherman M. Weissman, George M.

Martin. Edition 1st Edition. First Published eBook Published 29 January Cited by: 5. Chromosomal Instability and Aging describes cloning genes for human chromosomal instability disorders, the causal factors and consequences of chromosomal injury, the telomere hypothesis of aging, and age-dependant mitochondrial genetic instability.

It includes more than references to facilitate further research, making it an informative Cited by: 5. Get this from a library.

Chromosomal instability and aging: basic science and clinical implications. [Fuki M Hisama; Sherman M Weissman; George M Martin;] -- This text examines the relationship between DNA damage and repair, cellular senescence, genomic instability and ageing.

It includes in-depth discussions of various types of DNA damage, the DNA repair. Chromosomal Instability in Normative Aging / Birgit Maurer, Martina Guttenbach, Michael Schmid Chromatin, Aging, and Cellular Senescence / Bruce H. Howard --Part II Human Premature Aging and Chromosomal Instability Syndromes Werner Syndrome / Junko Oshima Mondello C, Riboni R, Casati A, Nardo T, Nuzzo F () Chromosomal instability and telomere length variations during life span of human fibroblast clones.

Exp Cell Res – Google Scholar Monnat Jr RJ () Werner syndrome: Molecular genetics and mechanistic by: 5. 1. Introduction. Genome instability is considered one of the hallmarks of instability refers to a range of DNA alterations, from point mutations and deletions and insertions to chromosomal rearrangements and whole chromosome numerical changes, which irreversibly change the information content of the genome.

Chromosomal instability syndromes are a group of inherited disorders associated with chromosomal instability and breakage either spontaneously or in response to DNA damaging agents. The majority of these syndromes are significant because they have associations with variable degrees of immunodeficiency, infectious disease, and the risk of developing certain types of malignancies.

1. Introduction. Chromosomal instability (CIN) refers to the process by which cells experience increased rates of chromosome segregation defects during mitosis over several generations, and thus lead to heterogeneous populations of cells with chromosomal layouts (karyotypes) that are no longer a multiple of the haploid complement (Geigl et al., ).

Introduction. Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a reproductive and endocrine dysfunction characterized in women younger than 40 years by irregular menses, hypoestrogenism and menopausal-level serum gonadotrophins (Cooper et al., ).A long-term consequence of POI is a 50% higher risk of overall mortality as compared to women who reach natural menopause, mostly due to ischemic heart.

Chromosomal instability (CIN) refers to the rate at which cells are unable to properly segregate whole chromosomes, leading to aneuploidy.

Besides its prevalence in cancer cells and postulated implications in promoting tumorigenesis, studies in aneuploidy-prone mouse models uncovered an unanticipated link between CIN and aging.

The book shows how mathematical and computational models can be used to study cancer biology. It introduces the concept of mathematical modeling and then applies it to a variety of topics in cancer biology. These include aspects of cancer initiation and progression, such as the somatic evolution of cells, genetic instability, and angiogenesis.

Genome instability at the chromosomal level (numerical and structural CINs) has been determined as a conserved mechanism for aging, as a whole, and, more particularly, for aging of the brain, a post-mitotic tissue with an extremely limited potential of cell renewal (Yurov et al., ; Andriani et al., ; Vijg et al., ).

Chromosomal instability (CIN) is one of the major forms of genomic instability in various human cancers and is recognized as a common hallmark of tumorigenesis and heterogeneity.

However, some malignant tumors show a paucity of chromosomal alterations, suggesting that tumor progression and evolution can occur in the absence of CIN. It is unclear whether CIN is stable between precursor. Chromosomal instability is a characteristic of cancer cells, especially solid tumors (rather than most hematologic (blood cell) malignancies).

Several cellular mechanisms lead to numerical and structural chromosomal instability in cancer cells, including defects in (i) chromosomal distribution to the.

Fanconi anaemia (FA), ataxia telangiectasia (A-T), Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) and Bloom syndrome (BS) are clinically distinct, chromosome instability.

Medical geneticists and genetic counselors regularly see families attending the genetic counseling clinic with questions about chromosome abnormalities. These families may themselves have had a child affected with a chromosome condition; or, there may have been a history elsewhere in the family.

The presentation may have been due to infertility or reproductive loss. Abstract Chromosomal instability (CIN) refers to the rate at which cells are unable to properly segregate whole chromosomes, leading to aneuploidy.

Besides its. CiteScore: ℹ CiteScore: CiteScore measures the average citations received per peer-reviewed document published in this title.

CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. ) to peer-reviewed documents (articles, reviews, conference papers, data papers and book chapters) published in the same four calendar years, divided by the number of. How chromosome ends influence cellular aging Date: Septem Source: Heidelberg, Universität Summary: By studying processes that occur at the ends of chromosomes, a team researchers has.

Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer that results from ongoing errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Although chromosomal instability is. Chap Chromosome Instability Syndromes, in the AGT Cytogenetics Laboratory Manual, 4 th ed., discusses the disorders that are associated with such impairments and are amenable to cytogenetic diagnoses.

This includes chromosome instability syndromes, such as Fanconi anemia, Bloom syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia, Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Chromosomal instability (CIN) Microsatellite instability (MSI) Genomic instability happens during normal aging and its increase must accelerate aging and contrary, its decrease must delay the age-related signs, increasing the lifespan.

Aging triggers progressively the activation of INK4a/ARF locus which also induces senescence. More information: Eugènia Almacellas et al, Lysosomal degradation ensures accurate chromosomal segregation to prevent chromosomal instability, Autophagy (). DOI: / Emphasis is placed on investigations that delineate the contribution of macromolecular damage and cytotoxicity, genetic programs, epigenetics and genetic instability, mitochondrial function, alterations of metabolism and innovative anti-aging approaches.

For all of the mentioned studies it is necessary to address the underlying mechanisms. This particular morphology represents a potential new biomarker for the identification of cells with chromosomal instability.

"The study connects two major fields of research in cellular biology. Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and are shorten with aging or various causes.

Shortened telomere plays an important role for chromosomal instability in carcinogenesis, or a number of diseases in relation to aging. FISH using peptide-nucleic acid (PNA) probe is suitable for analyzing telomeres, because telomere is a part of DNA molecule and.

Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a type of genomic instability in which chromosomes are unstable, such that either whole chromosomes or parts of chromosomes are duplicated or deleted.

More specifically, CIN refers to the increase in rate of addition or loss of entire chromosomes or sections of them. The unequal distribution of DNA to daughter cells upon mitosis results in a failure to maintain.

chromosomal instability characteristic of the diseases. AGING, AprilVol.3 No FANCJ-depleted human cells are sensitive to a G4- specific binding compound and show elevated DNA damage and apoptosis upon exposure to the drug [25].

Moreover, FANCJ-deficient cells accumulate deletions. First, telomere structures need to be correct in order to maintain genomic stability; chromosomal instability is apparent in cancer cells. Also, telomere length decreases with cellular age.

This shows that SIRT6's role at telomeres correlates with aging. In SIRT6 deficient cell, H 3 K 9 and H 3 K 56 are hyperacetylated which leads to stochastic replication-associated telomere sequence loss, accumulation of telomeric DNA damage, and genomic instability with chromosomal end-to-end fusions.

With these problems, cell senescence is brought on prematurely in the cell. CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY IN AGING AND CANCER; MOLECULAR MECHANISMS AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES The goals for this symposium are to present: OBJECTIVES 1.

An overview of the role of chromosomal instability in Aging and Cancer 2. New molecular insights into the pathogenesis of Aging Cancer Syndromes 3.The increasing duration of space missions involves a progressively higher exposure of astronauts to cosmic rays, whose most hazardous component is made up of High-Atomic number and High-Energy (HZE) ions.

HZE ions interact along their tracks with biological molecules inducing changes on living material qualitatively different from that observed after irradiation for therapeutic purposes or.People with _____ personality disorder display great instability, major shifts in mood, an unstable self-image, and impulsivity.

Which abnormal chromosomal situation is a cause of Down syndrome? _____ is an explanation for Alzheimer's disease that suggests that changes in aging brain cells may trigger an autoimmune response that leads.